Theme 7: Multifunctional Composites

The concept of multifunctional composites has become prominent over the last several years with a number of definitions being accepted. The most popular is a material, structure, or material system with an ability to perform multiple functions through a judicious combination of structure function with one or more additional functional capabilities as dictated by system requirements. Some research approaches try to design multifunctional composites that emulate biological systems, in which jointed frameworks and complex materials impart multiple functionalities integrated over a wide range of length scales. These “materials” tend to preserve their multiple-function capability to smaller-scales as the volume is arbitrarily sub-divided. Other approaches are more pragmatic in starting with conventional load-bearing structures and incorporating additional layers, microsystems, and/or devices to add functionality. These “material systems” may lose functionality with sub-division of the volume into smaller pieces. Both approaches seek to deliver truly dramatic improvements in system-level efficiency instead of incremental improvements in individual property values.

The purpose of the Multifunctional Composites Theme at ICCM-20 is to gather leading researchers in multifunctional composite materials from around the world to: 1) discuss and assess state-of-the-art developments in structural composites with additional integrated functionalities conceived within various visionary contexts; and 2) to explore novel concepts and strategies for achieving system-level performance and efficiency gains through multifunctional composite materials, subsystems and structures.

Topics of interest include (but are not restricted to) the following:

Track 7-1: “Multifunctional Composites – Processing and Integration”

(Key words: additive processing, 3D/4D printing, component/device interface functionality, integrated RF functionality)

Track 7-2: “Multifunctional Composites – Coupled Properties and Multi-physics Models”

(Key words: multi-field-coupling, multi-physics modeling, piezo-, magneto-, thermo-electric/strictive constituents)

Track 7-3: “Multifunctional Composites – Self-healing and Bio-inspired Designs”

(Key words: self-healing, self-remodeling, self-reinforcement, transpiration cooling, vascular networks, autonomic systems)

Track 7-4: “Multifunctional Composites – Energy Storage and Harvest”

(Key words: structure-battery, structure-capacitor, structure-supercapacitor, structure-photovoltaic, structure-thermoelectric, structure-piezoelectric, battery-energy harvestor, battery-sensor, battery-actuator, small-scale/high-efficiency power management electronics)

Track 7-5: “Multifunctional Composites – Sensing and Actuation

(Key words: distributed/localized sensor networks, sensing of heat/strain/flow, damage detection and assessment, embedded actuation, artificial muscles)

Track 7-6: “Multifunctional Composites – Adaptive Response and Reconfiguration”

(Key words: shape-change, shape-memory, property/function reconfiguration, dynamic response regulation, structural electronics, meta-structures)

Track 7-7: “Multifunctional Composites – Smart Structures”

(Key words: multifunctional systems and structural couplings, reconfigurable skin systems, morphing structures, control laws)

Theme Coordinators:

B.-L. ("Les") Lee, ScD

Program Manager for Mechanics of Multifunctional Materials & Microsystems

Air Force Office of Scientific Research

875 N. Randolph Street

Arlington, VA 22203 USA

Phone: +1 (703) 696-8483

Fax: +1 (703) 696-8451

E-mail: byung.lee@us.af.mil

James P. Thomas, PhD

Multifunctional Materials Branch

Code 6350

Naval Research Laboratory

4555 Overlook Avenue, SW

Washington, DC 20375 USA

Phone: +1 (202) 404-8324

Fax: +1 (202) 404-7176

E-mail: james.p.thomas@nrl.navy.mil

 

 

Track 7-1: “Multifunctional Composites – Processing and Integration”

Jeffery W. Baur¹, Daniel Therriault2

1 Air Force Research Laboratory, Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH 45433, USA (jeffery.baur@us.af.mil)

2 Polytechnique Montréal, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Montréal, QC H3C 3A7, Canada (daniel.therriault@polymtl.ca)

Key words: additive processing, 3D/4D printing, component/device interface functionality, integrated RF functionality

Scope of Track

This Track emphasizes novel approaches to the processing and integration of constituent materials (e.g., resin, reinforcement, functional materials, devices) into multifunctional structural or nanocomposites capable of performing multiple roles. The innovations of interest are diverse and can include (a) the additive processing methods for constituent materials (resins, reinforcements, functional materials or devices), (b) the 3D printing or integration of time-variant or “smart” materials (i.e. 4D printing), (c) the tailoring of electrical, thermal, or mechanical energy transport within the interphase region between constituents, and (d) the incorporation of radio frequency (RF) antenna or EMI elements, materials, or structures into load-bearing composites. The emerging capabilities of additive processing are of current, but not exclusive, interest.

 

Track 7-2: “Multifunctional Composites – Coupled Properties and Multi-physics Models”

Richard A Vaia¹, Minoru Taya2, Narayana Aluru3

1 Air Force Research Laboratory, Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, WPAFB, OH 45433, USA (richard.vaia@us.af.mil)

2 University of Washington, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Seattle, WA 98195, USA (tayam@u.washington.edu)

3 University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Urbana, IL 61801, USA (aluru@illinois.edu)

Key words: multi-field-coupling, multi-physics modeling, multi-ferrioc material systems, piezo-, magneto-, thermo-electric/strictive constituents

Scope of Track

This Track emphasizes the development of material systems whose multi-functional design exploits performance that arises via the coupling of various externally-induced fields within the composite. Talks on multi-physics modeling and associated experimental verification are encouraged, as well as discussions of emerging fabrication, processing and characterization of such composites and their constituents. For example, these composites may exhibit coupling across different fields (mechanical, thermal, electromagnetic, and optical) leading to complex multifunctional behavior. The behavior may be linear, nonlinear or dramatic; such as arising from a phase change triggered by a combination of multiple stimuli. The composite materials could be metal, ceramic, carbon, polymeric, or combination of them. Modeling and theory will span analytical, numerical, and hybrid-experimental-numerical scheme based.

 

Track 7-3: “Multifunctional Composites - Self-Healing & Bio-Inspired Designs”

Nancy R. Sottos¹, Richard Trask2, David Kisailus3

1 University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Department of Materials Science & Engineering, Urbana, IL 61801, USA (n-sottos@illinois.edu)

2 University of Bristol, Department of Aerospace Engineering, Bristol, BS8 1TR, United Kingdom (r.s.trask@bristol.ac.uk)

3 University of California, Riverside, Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Riverside, CA 92521, USA (david@engr.ucr.edu)

Key words: Self-healing, self-remodeling, self-reinforcement, transpiration cooling, vascular networks, autonomic systems

Scope of Track

Waiting for Track Leader inputs. Expected soon.


Track 7-4: “Multifunctional Composites – Energy Storage and Harvest”

Emile Greenhalgh¹, Leif Asp2, Dan Zenkert3

1 Imperial College London, Department of Aeronautics, London, SW7 2AZ, United Kingdom (e.greenhalgh@imperial.ac.uk)

2 Swerea SICOMP, SE-431 22, Mölndal, Sweden (leif.asp@swerea.se)

3 KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Department of Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, SE-100 44, Stockholm, Sweden (danz@kth.se)

Key words: structure-battery, structure-capacitor, structure-supercapacitor, structure-photovoltaic, structure-thermoelectric, structure-piezoelectric, battery-energy harvestor, battery-sensor, battery-actuator, small-scale/high-efficiency power management electronics

Scope of Track

This Track addresses multifunctional composite materials with the ability to store and/or harvest electrical energy. The composites considered shall have an intrinsic capability to perform two or more functions simultaneously - in the instance considered here, polymer composites that can simultaneously carry mechanical loads whilst storing and delivering electrical energy. The Track comprises structural power composites, e.g. structural batteries and supercapacitors, their manufacture and characteristics. These materials consist of multifunctional composite constituents that simultaneously and synergistically provide structural and electrochemical energy storage functions. Properties of interest for such materials are mechanical performance, electrochemical capacity and power density, as well as actuation, sensing and energy harvesting capabilities. We also encourage papers addressing processing/scale-up and engineering issues for these materials. The research areas to be addressed for these types of material devices include: carbon fibre electrodes, structural separators, multifunctional matrix materials, device architectures and material functionalization. Papers describing techniques for material characterisation, fabrication and application of structural power composites are also encouraged.

 

Track 7-5: “Multifunctional Composites – Sensing and Actuation”

Fu-Kuo Chang¹, Alexander L. Kalamkarov2

1 Stanford University, Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Stanford, CA 94305, USA (fkchang@stanford.edu)

2 Dalhousie University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Halifax, NS B3H 4R2, Canada (alex.kalamkarov@dal.ca)

Key words: distributed/localized sensor networks, sensing of heat/strain/flow, damage detection and assessment, embedded actuation, smart actuation materials, artificial muscles

Scope of Track

This Track emphasizes the establishment of smart multifunctional composites that are capable of sensing the dynamic changes of environment in real time, monitoring the health of their own states from processing throughout the entire usage life of the structures (cradle to grave), as well as activating embedded actuators to exert mechanical loads and accommodate new environment. The innovations are sought for: (a) the analysis, design and synthesis of composites with distributed or localized sensors, actuators and their combinations; (b) real-time monitoring of the environmental conditions surrounding the structures such as heat, strain or air flow; (c) detection and diagnosis of damage state in the materials; (d) sensor network with self-diagnosis capabilities for life-cycle health management; (e) modelling and characterization of newly developed smart actuation materials; (f) muscle-like actuators and other embedded actuation network; (g) new additive manufacturing techniques for integration of sensing and actuation capabilities; and (h) the use of the multifunctional composites with sensing and actuation functions for various applications such as aircraft structures, robots, biomedical implants, etc.

 

Track 7-6: “Multifunctional Composites – Adaptive Response and Reconfiguration”

Daniel J. Inman¹, Jinsong Leng2

1 University of Michigan, Department of Aerospace Engineering, Ann Arbor, MI 48105, USA (daniniman@umich.edu)

2 Harbin Institute of Technology, Center for Smart Materials and Structures, Harbin, 150080, PR China (lengjinsong@yahoo.com)

Key words: shape-change, shape-memory, property/function reconfiguration, dynamic response regulation, structural electronics, meta-structures

Scope of Track

This Track focuses on the establishment of multifunctional composite materials and structures that are capable of controlling or adjusting the functionality, properties and physical configuration in response to structural/functional demand and environmental changes. The innovations are sought for: (a) shape changing materials and structures, (b) use of shape memory alloys and polymers to perform structural reconfiguration and/or change of physical properties, (c) use of smart materials and multifunctional concepts to mitigate vibrations, (d) multifunctional concepts to regulate dynamic response of structures, both by integrating reconfiguration and by using embedded active control, (e) mechanics of integrated structural electronics for sensing, actuating and control into multifunctional structural elements and (d) the use of metastructure concepts to create multifunctional composites for property and function reconfiguration.

 

Track 7-7: “Multifunctional Composites - Smart Structures”

Christian Hühne¹, Alessandro Croce2, Jay Kudva3

1 DLR - German Aerospace Center, Institute of Composite Structures and Adaptive Systems, 38108 Braunschweig, Germany (Christian.Huehne@dlr.de)

2 Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Aerospaziale, 20156 Milano, Italy (alessandro.croce@polimi.it)

3 NextGen Aeronautics, Inc., Torrance, CA 90505, USA (jkudva@nextgenaero.com)

Keywords: mutifunctional systems and structural couplings, reconfigurable skin systems, morphing structures, control laws

Scope of Track

Waiting for Track Leader inputs. Expected soon.